Medieval document with a royal seal attached, c.1412, sold for £1400 at Adam Partridge.

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His crimes are not specified but the text reads that Barlawe be “forgiven all rebellion and insurrection against the crown, all homicide, felony, robbery and participation with such”. It is thought to date from 1412, the penultimate year of Henry IV’s rule.

A lot of obvious local interest to the clients of Cheshire auctioneer Adam Partridge (20% buyer’s premium), it sold for £1400 (estimate £400-600) as part of a three-day sale on August 16-18.

Henry spent much of his tumultuous reign defending himself against plots, rebellions, and assassination attempts. His key issue was what to do with the recently deposed Richard II and how to persuade his subjects that, previously simply Henry Bolingbrooke, aristocratic son of John of John of Gaunt, he was now kingship material.

Even when Richard died in prison and his body was put on show at the old St Paul’s Cathedral, rumours circulated that he was still alive and waiting to take back his throne.