The fine linen item with a draw-string waist and embroidered 'VR 36' beneath a crown, were sold by Jersey-based collector David Gainsborough Roberts.
Roberts was selling a collection of memorabilia at the Christie’s sale which realised a total of £397,938.
The royal underwear had an estimate of £2000-3000 at the sale entitled Out of the Ordinary – The 250th Anniversary Edition, and after interest from 12 bidders a gentleman in the room secured the lot for a total of £16,250, including 25% buyer’s premium.
Nic McElhatton, chairman at Christie's South Kensington salerooms, said: “We believe this price to be a new record.”
Queen Victoria is in vogue currently after the popularity of the eight-part ITV series on the monarch.
McElhatton agreed the popularity of the show had helped but said: “People love anything connected to royalty. There was a broad interest in the room.”
The drawers are believed to date from the late 1800s, towards the end of the monarch's life, due to the size of the waist.
Items of Queen Victoria’s clothing were often given to members of the royal household, particularly after her death in 1901.
McElhatton said: “These were passed on by tradition, King Edward VII gifted them to someone but we're not sure who, and they then went to a dealer, which is where the seller bought them from in 1987.”
Previous Record Set At £12,090
However, her underwear sold at auction is still somewhat rare.
The previous record was a pair of her cotton drawers that fetched £12,090 at auction in Chippenham, Wiltshire, in July last year.
Christie’s South Kensington first sold a pair of Queen Victoria’s split drawers in 1976 for £65.
McElhatton added: “These items occasionally come up and there must be a number in existence as we believe she wore one pair and never wore them again, for them to be passed on to her ladies in waiting.
Another pair of Queen Victoria's knickers, with an estimate of £3000-5000, will be up for auction on October 9 at Westenhanger Auction Galleries in Hythe, Kent.