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The aggregate was achieved with 27 per cent fewer lots than the auctioneer's previous high in 2007.

Helped by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner's Kinderköpfchen, sold at €1.45m, Modern and post-War art grossed some €20m, with Old Masters and 19th century paintings contributing €1.6m and rare books and prints a further €3.2m – the best result in 20 years and €800,000 up on the previous high set last year.