Enjoy unlimited access: just £1 for 12 weeks

Subscribe now

The Sherif was the only Muslim ruler to reply to Bonaparte’s letters, being acutely aware of the potential economic and political consequences of his invasion, particularly following the Battle of Aboukir and the English blockade, but in this letter, printed in Cairo (and perhaps publicly displayed) deals with the Hajj and assures pilgrims that they will be protected from marauders.